Stimulants, Wakefulness-promoting Agents, and Nonstimulant Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medications

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as for excessive daytime sleepiness of narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea/hyponea syndrome, and shift work sleep disorder have been advanced and expanded rapidly in the past 15 years. The pharmacotherapeutic armamentaria for those disorders include stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, and lisdexamfetamine), wakefulness-promoting agents (modafinil and armodafinil for narcolepsy), as well as nonstimulant ADHD medications (atomoxetin, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; guanfacine and clonidine α2A agonists). In this review, a brief history, chemical classifications, and pivotal clinical data of those therapeutic drugs which were approved as indications by the US Food and Drug Administration are discussed. Common off-label applications of those drugs in psychiatric practice are also mentioned.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)210-216
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine(Taiwan)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013


  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Modafinil
  • Narcolepsy
  • Stimulants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Stimulants, Wakefulness-promoting Agents, and Nonstimulant Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this