Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients

Hsin-Hung Huang, Hsuan-Hwai Lin, Yu-Lueng Shih, Peng-Jen Chen, Wei-Kuo Chang, Heng-Cheng Chu, You-Chen Chao, Tsai-Yuan Hsieh

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The major characteristics of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) in cirrhotic patients have not been completely defined. Cirrhotic patients with SICH were thus analyzed in an effort to better understand the risk factors for SICH and predict patient outcomes. Patients and methods: From 1997 to 2006, 4515 hospitalized cirrhotic patients were recruited, with a focus on 36 cirrhotic patients with SICH who had no history of cerebral vascular accidents, head injuries, or cerebral arteriovenous malformations. The patient characteristics, severity of cirrhosis, location of the hematoma, and prognosis were analyzed. Results: Of the patients, 78% were males, 72% consumed alcohol, and 81% had a mild-to-moderate degree of cirrhosis. The overall incidence of SICH was related to the etiology of cirrhosis as follows: virus-related cirrhosis (0.3%), alcohol-related cirrhosis (1.9%), and combined virus- and alcohol-related cirrhosis (3%). The outcome of patients with SICH was associated with the size of the hematoma (P <0.005), the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (P <0.05), the Child-Pugh classification (P = 0.05), and the serum total bilirubin level (P <0.05). Conclusion: SICH occurs primarily in young males with mild-to-moderate alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. The etiology of cirrhosis is related to the incidence of SICH, but not to the patient outcome. The severity of liver cirrhosis is associated with patient outcome, but not the incidence of SICH. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-258
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Alcohol
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage
  • bilirubin
  • adult
  • aged
  • alcohol consumption
  • alcohol liver cirrhosis
  • article
  • bilirubin blood level
  • brain hematoma
  • brain hemorrhage
  • clinical feature
  • disease association
  • disease severity
  • female
  • Glasgow coma scale
  • hospital patient
  • human
  • incidence
  • liver cirrhosis
  • major clinical study
  • male
  • outcome assessment
  • prognosis
  • risk factor
  • Adult
  • Age of Onset
  • Aged
  • Brain
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages
  • Liver
  • Liver Cirrhosis
  • Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic
  • Liver Function Tests
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurosurgical Procedures
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


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