SPOCK1 overexpression confers a poor prognosis in urothelial carcinoma

Li Jung Ma, Wen Jen Wu, Yu Hui Wang, Ting Feng Wu, Peir In Liang, I. Wei Chang, Hong Lin He, Chien Feng Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The majority deaths of cancer patients are related to metastasis, thus genes associated with cell motility interest us. SPOCK1 was elected by data mining and serial evaluation. In addition, SPOCK1 has been reported to be highly expressed in different human cancers and been related to adverse outcomes. Therefore, we validate its prognostic significance in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Materials and Methods: Real-time RT-PCR assay was used to detect SPOCK1 transcript level in 27 urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and 27 urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) samples. Immunohistochemistry evaluated by H-score determined SPOCK1 expressions in 340 UTUCs and 295 UBUCs. The transcript and protein expression were correlated with clinicopathological features. Further evaluations of the prognostic significance of SPOCK1 for disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS) were analyzed. Results: The expressions of SPOCK1 in UC were higher than those in normal urothelium by immunohistochemistry. The statistical analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics and immunohistochemistry showed that the higher expression of SPOCK1 was correlated to pT status (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (UTUC, P=0.006; UBUC, P=0.033), higher histological grade (UTUC, P < 0.001; UBUC, P < 0.001), vascular invasion (UTUC, P < 0.001; UBUC, P < 0.001), perineurial invasion (UTUC, P < 0.001; UBUC, P=0.001) and frequent mitosis (UTUC, P < 0.001; UBUC, P=0.001). The prognosis of SPOCK1 of UC showed high SPOCK1 expression had significantly worse DSS and MeFS. Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated that the higher expression of SPOCK1 correlates with a poor prognosis in UC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)467-476
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cancer
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Prognosis
  • SPOCK1
  • Transcriptome
  • Urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology


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