Metastasis is a major challenge in aggressive endometrial cancer treatment accounting for the high recurrence risk and poor prognosis of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), regulated by the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway, facilitates tumor metastasis. Spirulina phycocyanin extract (SPE) and its purified products allophycocyanin (APC) and C-phycocyanin (C-PC), derived from Spirulina platensis, can be considered a nutraceutical compound with the ability to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. Current study aims to investigate the anti-metastatic potential of SPE, and its purified products APC, and C-PC on endometrial cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, human endometrial cancer cell lines (HEC-1A and Ishikawa) as an in vitro model. Secondly, HEC-1A cells transfected with luminescence gene were implanted into female nude mice as a xenograft model. MTT assay, transwell migration assay, immunoblotting assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, and IVIS XRMS analysis techniques were used. The in vitro results showed that SPE and its purified products APC and C-PC inhibited cell migration, and altered the expression of EMT-related phenotypes by reversing the TGFβ/SMADs signaling pathway. The in vivo results indicated that SPE repressed the metastasis of HEC-1A-LUC cells through modulating EMT-related markers expression. Overall, SPE and its efficient components APC and C-PC reversed the EMT through targeting the TGFβ/SMADs signaling pathway, suggesting an effective therapeutic strategy for metastatic endometrial cancer.
- Endometrial cancer
- Epithelial–mesenchymal transition
- spirulina phycocyanin extract
- Transforming growth factor beta
ASJC Scopus subject areas