Spatial and temporal analysis of plasmodium Knowlesi infection in peninsular Malaysia, 2011 to 2018

Wei Kit Phang, Mohd Hafizi Abdul Hamid, Jenarun Jelip, Rose Nani Mudin, Ting Wu Chuang, Yee Ling Lau, Mun Yik Fong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


The life-threatening zoonotic malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysia has recently been reported to be the highest among all malaria cases; however, previous studies have mainly focused on the transmission of P. knowlesi in Malaysian Borneo (East Malaysia). This study aimed to describe the transmission patterns of P. knowlesi infection in Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia). The spatial distribution of P. knowlesi was mapped across Peninsular Malaysia using Geographic Information System techniques. Local indicators of spatial associations were used to evaluate spatial patterns of P. knowlesi incidence. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models were utilized to analyze the monthly incidence of knowlesi malaria in the hotspot region from 2012 to 2017 and to forecast subsequent incidence in 2018. Spatial analysis revealed that hotspots were clustered in the central-northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. Time series analysis revealed the strong seasonality of transmission from January to March. This study provides fundamental information on the spatial distribution and temporal dynamic of P. knowlesi in Peninsular Malaysia from 2011 to 2018. Current control policy should consider different strategies to prevent the transmission of both human and zoonotic malaria, particularly in the hotspot region, to ensure a successful elimination of malaria in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9271
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2 2020


  • Demography
  • Malaria
  • Peninsular Malaysia
  • Plasmodium knowlesi
  • Spatial analysis
  • Time series analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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