Smartphone Dependence among Undergraduates in Taiwan

Nae-Fang Miao, Cheng-Jin Lin, Ching-Lien Cheng, Yu-Ling Hsiao, I-Hui Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Smartphones have become a new means of communication and a major method of obtaining information. Dependence on or the excessive use of smartphones may affect health in the long term. However, little attention has been focused on smartphone use and dependence among undergraduates. Therefore, this study investigated the smartphone use behavior of Taiwanese undergraduates and their dependence on smartphones. A cross-sectional study design with a structured questionnaire was used for undergraduates aged ≥ 20 years from four universities. The results suggested that the majority of participants, particularly women, experienced physical discomfort caused by smartphone use. Moreover, the participants exhibited a moderate to high dependence on smartphones. Smartphone use and dependence were both affected by family economic status, monthly allowance, and major. The findings indicated that health care providers, educators, and parents can play critical roles in encouraging the healthy use of smartphones among undergraduates.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-256
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Mobile Multimedia
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018


  • Smartphone use
  • Smartphone dependence
  • Undergraduates
  • Health
  • Mobile phone


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