Simple Advanced Preparation Method for Improving the Thickness Stability of Powder Thickening Agents in Dysphagia Management

Jui Chu Kao, Hsin Ya Yu, Yuan Hao Hsu, Chia Ning Hsu, Yen Chun Chen, Yen Ling Su, Li ni Yen, Kuo Tung Liao, Shao Chen Tsai, Sheng Kai Lin, Shih Han Hung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Texture modification of foods by using thickening agents is a routine practice for assessing and treating dysphagic patients. However, a powder-thickened fluid's viscosity might change over time, and little has been proposed to overcome this inconsistency. This study aimed to evaluate variations in the thickness of a fluid thickened with a common xanthan gum–based powder and to explore the feasibility of a simple advanced preparation method for thickened liquids to improve thickness stability. Thickened fluids with concentrations of 1.0 g/100 mL, 0.7 g/100 mL, and 0.5 g/100 mL were prepared from both freshly opened and previously opened thickening powders. Fluid thickness was measured every 10 min in a series of International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative flow tests. A significant time-dependent decline in thickness was observed for all three concentrations in both groups, namely those prepared with freshly opened and previously opened thickening powders, and the shortest periods to achieve a stable viscosity after liquid preparation for the two groups were 80 and 70 min, respectively. On diluting the thickened liquids from the base liquid, which was prepared at a concentration of 1.0 g/100 mL and stored at room temperature for 90 min, no significant time-dependent thickness changes were observed over the following 60 min. The simple protocol of preparing the thickest "base" liquid in advance and then diluting it to the desired thickness resulted in a consistent liquid thickness, with the prepared liquids ready to be clinically applied and consumed, with high stability within 60 min.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)540-547
Number of pages8
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • Advanced preparation
  • Dysphagia
  • Thickening agent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Speech and Hearing


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