Salivary pro-inflammatory markers and smoking status influences the treatment effectiveness of periodontal disease patients with hypertension

Kun Tsung Lee, Zhu Ling Guo, Nai Chia Teng, Kuei Ling Christine Hsu, I. Hui Chen, Chang Yu Lee, Hung Ming Chang, Yung Kai Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Hypertension and periodontal diseases share several risk factors. Inflammation biomarkers in saliva are related to hypertension and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the salivary inflammatory biomarkers in the treatment effectiveness of patients with hypertension and periodontal disease. Methods: This observational study enrolled 160 subjects diagnosed with periodontitis, 40 of which had a history of hypertension. All subjects had completed scaling and root planning therapeutic procedures within four weeks. The clinical periodontal parameters (i.e., bleeding on probing, plaque control record (PCR), and probing depth (PD)) were evaluated before and after the treatment. Pro-inflammatory markers were determined using a commercial kit. Results: The recovery rate (PD 4–9 mm) in non-hypertensive subjects was significantly higher than in hypertensive subjects (60.47% vs. 52.60%, respectively; p = 0.04). All clinical parameters, excluding PCR, positively correlated with salivary IL-1β at baseline and after completing treatment. Our results showed that increased salivary IL-1β levels were positively associated with decreased PCR (β = −27.65 and p = 0.05) and PD recovery rate (β = −17.05 and p = 0.02) in hypertensive subjects. Conclusions: The present study sheds important light on the clinical use of salivary pro-inflammatory cytokines as valuable biomarkers for predicting the treatment effectiveness of patients suffering from hypertension and periodontitis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7364
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2 2021


  • Cytokine(s)
  • Inflammation and innate immunity
  • Non-surgical periodontal therapy
  • Plaque control
  • Scaling and root planning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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