Risk of cancer among HIV-infected patients from a population-based nested case-control study: Implications for cancer prevention

Chang Hua Chen, Chih Yuan Chung, Li Hsuan Wang, Che Lin, Hsiu Li Lin, Hsiu Chen Lin

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The burden of cancer is likely to increase among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population as it ages due to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: This study was a matched nested case-control study. It was performed using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The control group included non-HIV-infected patients matched by sex, age, and year of enrollment. Logistic regression analyses were performed and simultaneously adjusted for potential confounders (income, urbanization, and Charslon index of comorbidity to evaluate HIV infection as an independent risk of cancer. We calculated the overall and sex-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) to investigate the pattern of cancer risk and overall cancer risk in the patients with HIV infection. Results: Of the 1,115 HIV-infected patients, 104 (9.33%) developed cancer during the 11-year follow-up period. The risk of cancer for patients with HIV infection was significant (adjusted odds ratio = 3.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.92-5.19) after adjustment for potential confounders. There was a significantly increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 25.73, 95% CI = 6.83-90.85), cervical cancer (SIR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.0-16.06), lymphoma (SIR = 20.26, 95% CI = 5.86-70.10), and respiratory and intrathoracic cancer (SIR = 20.09, 95% CI = 2.34-172.09) compared with the control group. In addition, HIV-infected patients were at significant risk for renal, oral, breast, liver, skin, and colorectal cancer. Conclusions: Patients with HIV infection are at increased risk for several specific cancers. Our results support the implementation of an active and accelerated cancer screening schedule for patients with HIV infection to increase their life span.

Original languageEnglish
Article number133
JournalBMC Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 12 2015


  • Cancer
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Risk
  • Taiwan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research


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