The risk and outcomes of diabetes in patients with epilepsy remains unclear. We evaluated these risks using an epilepsy cohort analysis and a diabetes admission analysis. In the epilepsy cohort analysis, we identified 2854 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy in 2000–2008 from the research data of National Health Insurance in Taiwan. Using Propensity-score matching by sociodemographic factors and medical conditions, we selected 22,832 people without epilepsy as a non-exposed cohort for comparison. Follow-up events of diabetes from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013 were ascertained from medical claims. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of diabetes associated with epilepsy were calculated using multiple Cox proportional hazard models. In the diabetes admission analysis, we identified 92,438 hospitalized diabetes patients, 930 of whom had a history of epilepsy. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of adverse events after diabetes associated with previous epilepsy were calculated using multiple logistic regressions. The adjusted HR of diabetes in the cohort with epilepsy was 1.31 (95% CI 1.14–1.50) compared to the non-epilepsy cohort. Previous epilepsy was associated with post-diabetes adverse events, such as pneumonia (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.37–2.07), urinary tract infection (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.55–2.16), and septicemia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09–1.65). In conclusion, epilepsy was associated with higher risk of diabetes and adverse post-diabetes outcomes. Diabetes prevention and attention to post-diabetes adverse events are needed for this susceptible population.
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