Restoring Prohealing/Remodeling-Associated M2a/c Macrophages Using ON101 Accelerates Diabetic Wound Healing

Ching Wen Lin, Chih Chiang Chen, Wen Yen Huang, Yen Yu Chen, Shiou Ting Chen, Hung Wen Chou, Chien Ming Hung, Wan Jiun Chen, Chia Sing Lu, Shi Xin Nian, Shyi Gen Chen, Hsuen Wen Chang, Vincent H.S. Chang, Li Ying Liu, Ming Liang Kuo, Shun Cheng Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Diabetic wounds exhibit chronic inflammation and delayed tissue proliferation or remodeling, mainly owing to prolonged proinflammatory (M1) macrophage activity and defects in transition to prohealing/proremodeling (M2a/M2c; CD206+ and/or CD163+) macrophages. We found that topical treatment with ON101, a plant-based potential therapeutic for diabetic foot ulcers, increased M2c-like (CD163+ and CD206+) cells and suppressed M1-like cells, altering the inflammatory gene profile in a diabetic mouse model compared with that in the controls. An in vitro macrophage-polarizing model revealed that ON101 directly suppressed CD80+ and CD86+ M1-macrophage polarization and M1-associated proinflammatory cytokines at both protein and transcriptional levels. Notably, conditioned medium collected from ON101-treated M1 macrophages reversed the M1-conditioned medium‒mediated suppression of CD206+ macrophages. Furthermore, conditioned medium from ON101-treated adipocyte progenitor cells significantly promoted CD206+ and CD163+ macrophages but strongly inhibited M1-like cells. ON101 treatment also stimulated the expression of GCSF and CXCL3 genes in human adipocyte progenitor cells. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant GCSF protein enhanced both CD206+ and CD163+ M2 markers, whereas CXCL3 treatment only stimulated CD163+ M2 macrophages. Depletion of cutaneous M2 macrophages inhibited ON101-induced diabetic wound healing. Thus, ON101 directly suppressed M1 macrophages and facilitated the GCSF- and CXCL3-mediated transition from M1 to M2 macrophages, lowering inflammation and leading to faster diabetic wound healing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100138
JournalJID Innovations
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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