Relationship between craniofacial morphology and congenitally missing mandibular incisors

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background/purpose: Treatment of incisors‘ agenesis is challenging that arouses orthodontists’ interests. The purpose of this study was to compare the craniofacial pattern of individuals with or without congenitally missing mandibular incisors. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included patients receiving orthodontic consultation between 1999 and 2019 at the Orthodontic Division of the Dental Department of Taipei Medical University Hospital. Cephalometric measurements were obtained through manual tracing and by using computer software. A total of 31 measurements were obtained to evaluate skeletal, dental and soft tissues, and chin morphology. A multivariate analysis of covariance, analysis of covariance, and Scheffé’s post hoc tests were used to analyze the differences among a group of patients with one congenitally missing mandibular incisor (M1), a group of patients with two congenitally missing mandibular incisors (M2), and the control group. Student's t-test was used to analyze the differences between the M1 or M2 group and the control group. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the M and control groups in terms of lower incisor angulation and facial balance. Regarding chin morphology, significant differences were noted between the M and control groups and also among the M1, M2, and control groups. Conclusion: The lower incisors of the M group are more retroclined than those of the control group, resulting in retrusive lower lips. Facial balance varies between the M and control groups. Congenitally missing mandibular incisors affect chin morphology, making the chin button prominent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)928-934
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Dental Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • 2-Incisor
  • 3-Incisor
  • Congenital missing
  • Craniofacial morphology
  • Mandibular incisor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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