Recurrent BRAF Gene Rearrangements in Myxoinflammatory Fibroblastic Sarcomas, but Not Hemosiderotic Fibrolipomatous Tumors

Yu Chien Kao, Valentina Ranucci, Lei Zhang, Yun Shao Sung, Edward A. Athanasian, David Swanson, Brendan C. Dickson, Cristina R. Antonescu

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35 Citations (Scopus)


Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is a low grade soft tissue sarcoma with a predilection for acral sites, being associated with a high rate of local recurrence but very infrequent distant metastases. Although a t(1;10) translocation resulting in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion has been reported as a recurrent genetic event in MIFS, this abnormality is seen only in a subset of cases. As no studies to date have investigated the spectrum of alternative genetic alterations in TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion negative MIFS, we undertook a genetic analysis of this particular cohort for further molecular classification. Triggered by an index case occurring in the finger of a 37-year-old female and harboring a novel TOM1L2-BRAF fusion by targeted RNA sequencing we investigated potential recurrent BRAF abnormalities by screening a large group of 19 TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusion negative MIFS by fluorescence in situ hybridization. There were 6 (32%) additional MIFS with BRAF genetic abnormalities, including 5 gene rearrangements and one showing BRAF amplification. Interestingly, VGLL3 amplification, a recurrent genetic abnormality coexisting with t(1;10) in some MIFS, was also detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 4/6 (67%) BRAF-rearranged MIFS, but not in the BRAF-amplified case. Up-regulated VGLL3 mRNA expression was also demonstrated in the index case by RNA sequencing. The 7 BRAF-rearranged/amplified MIFS arose in the fingers (n=3), and 1 each in wrist, forearm, foot, and knee, of adult patients (36 to 74 y; M:F=4:3). The histologic spectrum ranged from predominantly solid growth of plump histiocytoid to epithelioid tumor cells with focal myxoid change to a predominantly myxoid background with scattered tumor cells. Varying degree of inflammatory infiltrates and large tumor cells with virocyte-like macronucleoli were observed in most cases. Immunohistochemical stains of phosphorylated ERK, a downstream effector of BRAF activation, were positive in all 4 cases tested (2 diffuse strong, 2 focal strong). Unlike t(1;10), BRAF rearrangements were only found in MIFS but not in 6 hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT) lacking TGFBR3-MGEA5 fusions (including 2 pure HFLT, 2 hybrid HFLT-MIFS, and 2 associated with pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1456-1465
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • BRAF
  • MAPK
  • VGLL3
  • amplifications
  • fusions
  • myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Surgery
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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