Putranjivain A from Euphorbia jolkini inhibits both virus entry and late stage replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 in vitro

Hua Yew Cheng, Ta Chen Lin, Chien Min Yang, Kuo Chih Wang, Liang Tzung Lin, Chun Ching Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: To investigate the in vitro antiviral properties of putranjivain A, isolated from the whole plant of Euphorbia jolkini Bioss (Euphorbiaceae). Methods and results: Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 strain 196-infected Vero cells were used. It was shown that putranjivain A exhibited antiviral activity with an IC 50 of 7.9 ± 1.2 μM using the XTT assay, with the IC 50 value increasing with increasing multiplicity of infection. Using the plaque reduction assay, the IC 50 and IC 90 were 6.3 ± 0.8 and 14.5 ± 3.1 μM, respectively. Putranjivain A showed no cytotoxic effect on cell multiplication at concentrations that achieved antiviral activity. The 50% cell cytotoxic concentration (CC 50) was 80.3 ± 14.7 μM, and the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC 50 to IC 50) for the XTT and plaque reduction assays was 10.2 and 12.7, respectively. When tested for virucidal activity, putranjivain A significantly reduced viral infectivity at concentrations of 75 and 100 μM, but not at 50 μM or below. The results of the time-of-addition studies suggested that putranjivain A affected the late stage of HSV-2 replication at 25 μM. Interestingly, putranjivain A also showed inhibition of viral attachment and cell penetration. The combination of putranjivain A and aciclovir produced no interaction. Conclusions: Putranjivain A possesses antiviral activity, inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and also interfering with the late stage of viral replication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)577-583
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Antiviral activity
  • HSV-2
  • Plants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology


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