Psychometric Properties of the Short-Form Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-SF) and Its Associated Factors among the Elderly in Bangladesh

Naznin Sultana, Thao T. P. Nguyen, Ahmed Hossain, Md. Asaduzzaman, Minh H. Nguyen, Ishrat Jahan, Kien T. Nguyen, Tuyen Van Duong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: This study aimed to (1) evaluate the psychometric properties of a Comprehensive Short-Form Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-SF) and (2) examine the associated factors of GDS-SF among the elderly. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2019 to April 2020 in Dhaka City Corporation, Bangladesh. Data of 377 elderly were collected, including socio-demographic characteristics, social supports, comorbidities, sleep behaviours, and depression (as measured by the GDS-SF). We used the principal component analysis, correlation analysis, and logistic regression analysis to validate GDS-SF, and explore its associations. Results: The GDS-SF was reliable and homogeneous with Cronbach’s alpha = 0.836, and McDonald’s Omega = 0.841, with no floor/ceiling effects. The questionnaire demonstrated a good construct validity with item-scale convergent validity and KMO measure of sampling adequacy (0.869 for the total sample, 0.838 for the community subsample, and 0.851 for the slum subsample). In the multivariate model, older people had a higher likelihood of moderate and severe depression (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00, 1.12; p = 0.048). The likelihood of having moderate and severe depression was lower in men (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28, 0.85; p = 0.011) and those satisfied with their children’s support (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.35; p < 0.001), compared with their counterparts, respectively. Conclusions: The GDS-SF is a reliable and valid survey tool for evaluating depression in Bangladeshi older adults. Age, gender, and satisfaction with children’s support were predictors of depression.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7935
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


  • Bangladesh
  • peer support
  • principal component analysis
  • psychometric properties
  • reliability
  • satisfaction
  • short-form geriatric depression scale
  • the elderly
  • validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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