Protective effects of glutamine and leucine supplementation on sepsis-induced skeletal muscle injuries

Yu Chen Hou, Man Hui Pai, Jin Ming Wu, Po Jen Yang, Po Chu Lee, Kuen Yuan Chen, Sung Ling Yeh, Ming Tsan Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated the effects of L-glutamine (Gln) and/or L-leucine (Leu) administration on sepsis-induced skeletal muscle injuries. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture to induce polymicrobial sepsis and then given an intraperitoneal injection of Gln, Leu, or Gln plus Leu beginning at 1 h after the operation with re-injections every 24 h. All mice were sacri-ficed on either day 1 or day 4 after the operation. Blood and muscles were collected for analysis of inflammation and oxidative damage-related biomolecules. Results indicated that both Gln and Leu supplementation alleviated sepsis-induced skeletal muscle damage by reducing monocyte infiltra-tion, calpain activity, and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hypoxia-induci-ble factor-1α. Furthermore, septic mice treated with Gln had higher percentages of blood anti-in-flammatory monocytes and muscle M2 macrophages, whereas Leu treatment enhanced the muscle expressions of mitochondrion-related genes. However, there were no synergistic effects when Gln and Leu were simultaneously administered. These findings suggest that both Gln and Leu had prominent abilities to attenuate inflammation and degradation of skeletal muscles in the early and/or late phases of sepsis. Moreover, Gln promoted the switch of leukocytes toward an anti-in-flammatory phenotype, while Leu treatment maintained muscle bioenergetic function.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13003
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2021


  • Calpain
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α
  • Macrophage
  • Mitochondria
  • Monocyte

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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