Prophylactic Effects of Purple Shoot Green Tea on Cytokine Immunomodulation through Scavenging Free Radicals and NO in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages

Chih Cheng Lin, Hsiu Hua Lin, Hsiang Chang, Lu Te Chuang, Chih Yu Hsieh, Shing Hwa Lu, Chi Feng Hung, Jia Feng Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Polyphenols and flavonoids from non-fermented green tea and fully-fermented black tea exhibit antioxidant abilities that function as natural health foods for daily consumption. Nonetheless, evidence regarding prophylactic effects of purple shoot tea on immunomodulation remains scarce. We compared the immunomodulatory effects of different tea processes on oxidative stress and cytokine expressions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Major constituents of four tea products, Taiwan Tea Experiment Station No.12 (TTES No. 12) black and green tea and purple shoot black and purple shoot green tea (TB, TG, PB and PG, respectively), were analyzed to explore the prophylactic effects on expressions of free radicals, nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cell models. PG contained abundant levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and proanthocyanidins (371.28 ± 3.83; 86.37 ± 1.46; 234.67 ± 10.1; and 24.81 ± 0.75 mg/g, respectively) contributing to excellent free radical scavenging potency. In both the LPS-activated inflammation model and the prophylactic model, all tea extracts suppressed NO secretion in a dose-dependent manner, especially for PG. Intriguingly, most tea extracts enhanced expressions of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated macrophages, except PG. However, all teas disrupted downstream transduction of chemoattractant MCP-1 for immune cell trafficking. In the prophylactic model, all teas inhibited inflammatory responses by attenuating expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner, especially for TG and PG. Our prophylactic model demonstrated PG exerts robust effects on modulating LPS-induced cytokine expressions of MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-α through scavenging free radicals and NO. In light of the prophylactic effects on LPS-related inflammation, PG effectively scavenges free radicals to modulate cytokine cascades that could serve as a functional beverage for immunomodulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3980-4000
Number of pages21
JournalCurrent Issues in Molecular Biology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • antioxidant
  • catechin
  • cytokine
  • fermentation process
  • flavonoid
  • free radicals
  • polyphenol
  • proanthocyanidin
  • prophylactic immunomodulation
  • purple shoot green tea
  • tannin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Microbiology (medical)


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