Primary and booster vaccination in reducing severe clinical outcomes associated with Omicron Naïve infection

Chen Yang Hsu, Jung Chen Chang, Sam Li Shen Chen, Hao Hsiang Chang, Abbie Ting Yu Lin, Amy Ming Feng Yen, Hsiu Hsi Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Little is known about long-term effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine in reducing severity and deaths associated with Omicron VOC not perturbed by prior infection and independent of oral anti-viral therapy and non-pharmaceutical (NPI). Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study was applied to Taiwan community during the unprecedent large-scale outbreaks of Omicron BA.2 between April and August, 2022. Primary vaccination since March, 2021 and booster vaccination since January, 2022 were offered on population level. Oral Anti-viral therapy was also offered as of mid-May 2022. The population-based effectiveness of vaccination in reducing the risk of moderate and severe cases of and death from Omicron BA.2 with the consideration of NPI and oral anti-viral therapy were assessed by using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results: The risks of three clinical outcomes associated with Omicron VOC infection were lowest for booster vaccination, followed by primary vaccination, and highest for incomplete vaccination with the consistent trends of being at increased risk for three outcomes from the young people aged 12 years or below until the elderly people aged 75 years or older with 7 age groups. Before the period using oral anti-viral therapy, complete primary vaccination with the duration more than 9 months before outbreaks conferred the statistically significant 47 % (23–64 %) reduction of death, 48 % (30–61 %) of severe disease, and 46 % (95 % CI: 37–54 %) of moderate disease after adjusting for 10–20 % independent effect of NPI. The benefits of booster vaccination within three months were further enhanced to 76 % (95 % CI: 67–86 %), 74 % (95 % CI: 67–80 %), and 61 % (95 % CI: 56–65 %) for three corresponding outcomes. The additional effectiveness of oral anti-viral therapy in reducing moderate disease was 13 % for the booster group and 5.8 % for primary vaccination. Conclusions: We corroborated population effectiveness of primary vaccination and its booster vaccination, independent of oral anti-viral therapy and NPI, in reducing severe clinical outcomes associated with Omicron BA.2 naïve infection population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-63
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infection and Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • COVID-19
  • Omicron-naïve
  • Oral antiviral therapy
  • Vaccine effectiveness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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