Introduction We investigated the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in individuals without known diabetes in Taiwan and developed a risk prediction model for identifying undiagnosed diabetes and IFG. Research design and methods Using data from a large population-based Taiwan Biobank study linked with the National Health Insurance Research Database, we estimated the standardized prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and IFG between 2012 and 2020. We used the forward continuation ratio model with the Lasso penalty, modeling undiagnosed diabetes, IFG, and healthy reference group (individuals without diabetes or IFG) as three ordinal outcomes, to identify the risk factors and construct the prediction model. Two models were created: Model 1 predicts undiagnosed diabetes, IFG-110 (ie, fasting glucose between 110 mg/dL and 125 mg/dL), and the healthy reference group, while Model 2 predicts undiagnosed diabetes, IFG-100 (ie, fasting glucose between 100 mg/dL and 125 mg/dL), and the healthy reference group. Results: The standardized prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes for 2012-2014, 2015-2016, 2017-2018, and 2019-2020 was 1.11%, 0.99%, 1.16%, and 0.99%, respectively. For these periods, the standardized prevalence of IFG-110 and IFG-100 was 4.49%, 3.73%, 4.30%, and 4.66% and 21.0%, 18.26%, 20.16%, and 21.08%, respectively. Significant risk prediction factors were age, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, education level, personal monthly income, betel nut chewing, self-reported hypertension, and family history of diabetes. The area under the curve (AUC) for predicting undiagnosed diabetes in Models 1 and 2 was 80.39% and 77.87%, respectively. The AUC for predicting undiagnosed diabetes or IFG in Models 1 and 2 was 78.25% and 74.39%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results showed the changes in the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and IFG. The identified risk factors and the prediction models could be helpful in identifying individuals with undiagnosed diabetes or individuals with a high risk of developing diabetes in Taiwan.
- early diagnosis
- pre-diabetic state
- risk assessment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism