Preliminary assessments of population exposure to glycidyl esters and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters from miscellaneous oil-containing packaged foods in Taiwan

Yu Hsuan Chang, Kai Wei Liao, Zih Ee Lin, Wei Ju Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Glycidyl esters (GEs) and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDEs) are carcinogenic contaminants found in refined oils. This study aimed to determine levels of GEs and 3-MCPDEs in packaged foodstuffs, and estimate daily exposure levels using food consumption data. The analysis involved Soxtec extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the recovery of spiked GEs and 3-MCPDEs was within the range of 80%∼110%. Results showed that GEs and 3-MCPDEs were almost ubiquitous in food products (95%), with the highest concentrations found in processed fats, followed by cookies and spreads. Food products containing palm-derived oils had significantly higher levels of contaminants (p < 0.05), with up to 58.1% of palm oil-containing foodstuffs exceeding the upper limits of either GEs or 3-MCPDEs set by the European Union. Cookies and instant noodles were identified as the main sources of exposure to GEs and 3-MCPDEs, with potential daily intake levels exceeding the tolerable daily intakes in children aged 0 ∼ 12 years.

Original languageEnglish
Article number137055
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume430
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2024

Keywords

  • EU
  • Food consumption
  • GC–MS
  • Palm oil
  • Soxtec extraction
  • Total daily intake

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Food Science

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Preliminary assessments of population exposure to glycidyl esters and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters from miscellaneous oil-containing packaged foods in Taiwan'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this