Predicting Long-Term Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury Using Repeated Measurements of Glasgow Coma Scale and Data Mining Methods

Hsueh Yi Lu, Tzu Chi Li, Yong Kwang Tu, Jui Chang Tsai, Hong Shiee Lai, Lu Ting Kuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Previous studies have identified some clinical parameters for predicting long-term functional recovery and mortality after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, data mining methods were combined with serial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and clinical and laboratory parameters to predict 6-month functional outcome and mortality in patients with TBI. Data of consecutive adult patients presenting at a trauma center with moderate-to-severe head injury were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical parameters including serial GCS measurements at emergency department, 7th day, and 14th day and laboratory data were included for analysis (n = 115). We employed artificial neural network (ANN), naïve Bayes (NB), decision tree, and logistic regression to predict mortality and functional outcomes at 6 months after TBI. Favorable functional outcome was achieved by 34.8 % of the patients, and overall 6-month mortality was 25.2 %. For 6-month functional outcome prediction, ANN was the best model, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 96.13 %, sensitivity of 83.50 %, and specificity of 89.73 %. The best predictive model for mortality was NB with AUC of 91.14 %, sensitivity of 81.17 %, and specificity of 90.65 %. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated GCS measurements on the 7th and 14th day and difference between emergency room and 14th day GCS score as the most influential attributes both in mortality and functional outcome prediction models. Analysis of serial GCS measurements using data mining methods provided additional predictive information in relation to 6-month mortality and functional outcome in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14
JournalJournal of Medical Systems
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 31 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Data mining
  • Glasgow coma scale
  • Mortality
  • Projections and predictions
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Information Systems
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management


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