Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins/Furans (PBDD/Fs) and Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Indoor and Outdoor of Gymnasiums

Ching Kai Su, Jian He Lu, How Ran Chao, Wei Hsiang Chang, Ming Hsien Tsai, Chih Lung Wang, I. Cheng Lu, Yu Ting Chang, Hsiao Chi Chuang, Wan Nurdiyana Wan Mansor, Yi Chyun Hsu, Ying I. Tsai, Shang Ming Ma

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It is still unknown whether the organobromine compounds in the indoor environment of the gyms would affect human health. This study tried to investigate PM2.5 and indoor-dust levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the gyms and then to further assess the health risks of the gym users and employees who were exposed to these organobromines through inhalation and ingestion. The gyms were to be examined for PBDD/DF/DEs on PM2.5 indoors and outdoors and in indoor dust. The results showed that indoor-dust, indoor PM2.5, and outdoor PM2.5 levels of PBDD/Fs were 37.8 ± 13.7 pg WHO2005-TEQ g–1 and 0.00650 ± 0.00340 and 0.00469 ± 0.00101 pg WHO2005-TEQ m–3, respectively, in the gyms, while for PBDEs, they were 2670 ± 2330 ng g–1 and 9.54 ± 4.68, and 8.27 ± 3.46 pg m–3. The PBDEs levels observed in this study were relatively lower when compared with the current global data of PM2.5 and indoor dust levels of PBDEs. The observed PM2.5-bound PBDDFs and PBDEs in the indoor gyms were not related to those in the outdoor gyms, but certain PBDE level was associated with PBDD/Fs in the indoor dust of the gyms. It suggested that the outdoor emission might not be correlated with the indoor emission, whereas indoor-dust PBDD/Fs might be converted from the pyrolysis of indoor-dust PBDEs. To assess the risks, the non-dietary daily intakes of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs were estimated as 1.61–2.11 × 10–7 and 4.15–5.42 × 10–13 mg kg b.w.–1 day–1, respectively, in the employees and 5.04–6.58 × 10–8 and 1.29–1.69 × 10–13 mg kg b.w.–1 day–1, respectively, in the gym users. The values didn’t exceed the critical levels when the gym employees and users were assessed by non-cancer and cancer risks of organobromines. In conclusion, although the gym employees and users inhaled more PM2.5 during the exercise, the risks of PBDD/DE/DFs were still under the acceptable levels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number220264
JournalAerosol and Air Quality Research
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • Gym
  • Health risks
  • Indoor dust
  • PBDEs and PBDD/Fs
  • PM2.5

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution


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