Vitamin D’s function in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not consistent in the literature. We examined the association between maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentration and GDM risk. A national cross-sectional study (1497 pregnant women) was conducted between 2017 and 2019 across Taiwan. Blood samples were drawn at recruitment to assess 25(OH)D concentrations, including vitamin D deficiency (VDD) (<20 ng/mL), insufficiency (<32 ng/mL), and sufficiency (≥32 ng/mL). GDM was detected from 24 to 28 weeks of gestation with the results extracted from the antenatal visit records. The prevalence of GDM was 2.9%. Logistic model analysis showed that 25(OH)D concentrations were not significantly associated with the risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.97, p = 0.144). However, subjects with VDD had a significantly greater risk of GDM (AOR = 2.26, p = 0.041), but not in those with vitamin D insufficiency (AOR = 1.20, p = 0.655). Furthermore, cubic piecewise spline regression was used to explore the relationship between five-unit intervals of 25(OH)D and the predicted probability of GDM. As the proportion of GDM increased for low 25(OH)D concentrations, it decreased at moderate concentrations and increased again at higher concentrations. These findings revealed a nonlinear relationship between 25(OH)D and GDM risk. VDD would be risky for GDM occurrence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2538
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • 25(OH)D concentration
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus
  • Pregnant women
  • Vitamin D deficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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