Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and nutraceutical profile of carissa species: An updated review

Jyoti Dhatwalia, Amita Kumari, Rachna Verma, Navneet Upadhyay, Ishita Guleria, Sohan Lal, Shabnam Thakur, Kasahun Gudeta, Vikas Kumar, Jane C.J. Chao, Somesh Sharma, Ashwani Kumar, Amanda Lee Ezra Manicum, José M. Lorenzo, Ryszard Amarowicz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Carissa, a genus of the Apocynaceae family, consists of evergreen species, such as shrubs as well as small trees that are native to Asia, Africa, and Oceania’s subtropical and tropical regions. Most of the Carissa species are traditionally used to treat various diseases, such as chest pain, headaches, gonorrhoea, rheumatism, syphilis, oedema, rabies, stomach pain, hepatitis, cardiac diseases, and asthma. The pharmacological studies on Carissa species revealed its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, antipyretic, analgesic, wound healing, anticonvulsant, antiarthritic, adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities, thus validating its use in indigenous medicine systems. The review article summarised the comprehensive literature available, including morphology, indigenous uses, bioactive composition, nutraceutical, and pharmacological activities of Carissa species. A total of 155 research papers were cited in this review article. The Carissa fruits are rich in dietary fibre, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamin C, and macro-and micro-elements. A total of 121 compounds (35 polyphenols (flavonoids and phenolic acids), 30 lignans, 41 terpenoids, 7 steroids, 2 coumarins, and 6 cardiac glycosides) have been extracted from C. spinarum, C. carandas, and C. macrocarpa. Among all chemical constituents, lupeol, carissol, naringin, carisssone, scopoletin, carissaeduloside A, D, J, carandinol, sarhamnoloside, carissanol, olivil, carinol, 3β-hy-droxyolean-11-en-28,13β-oilde, ursolic acid, and carissone are the key bioactive constituents responsible for pharmacological activities of genus Carissa. The gathered ethnopharmacological information in the review will help to understand the therapeutic relevance of Carissa as well as paving a way for further exploration in the discovery of novel plant-based drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7010
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Bioactive compounds
  • Carissa
  • Nutraceutical profile
  • Pharmacological activity
  • Phytochemistry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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