Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disease that presents with vascular stenosis and a hazy network of collateral formations in angiography. However, the detailed pathogenic pathway remains unknown. Studies have indicated that in addition to variations in the of genetic factor RNF213, unusual circulating angiogenetic factors observed in patients with MMD may play a critical role in producing “Moyamoya vessels”. Circulating angiogenetic factors, such as growth factors, vascular progenitor cells, cytokines, inflammatory factors, and other circulating proteins, could promote intimal hyperplasia in vessels and excessive collateral formation with defect structures through endothelial hyperplasia, smooth muscle migration, and atypical neovascularization. This study summarizes the hypothesized pathophysiology of how these circulating factors affect MMD and the interactive modulation between them.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1696
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2 2021


  • Cerebrovascular disease
  • Circulating factor
  • Collateral formations
  • Growth factors
  • Moyamoya disease
  • RNF213

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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