Particulate matter deposition and its impact on tuberculosis severity: A cross-sectional study in Taipei

Firdian Makrufardi, Hsiao Chi Chuang, Chi Won Suk, Yuan Chien Lin, Desy Rusmawatiningtyas, Indah Kartika Murni, Eggi Arguni, Kian Fan Chung, Kuan Jen Bai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The objective of this study was to examine the association between the lung lobe-deposited dose of inhaled fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and chest X-ray abnormalities in different lung lobes of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria infections (NTM). A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2014 and 2022, comprising 1073 patients who were recruited from chest department clinic in a tertial refer hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. Ambient 1-, 7-, and 30-day PM2.5 exposure and the deposition of PM2.5 in different lung lobes were estimated in each subject. The β coefficient for PM2.5 and deposited PM2.5 in lungs with the outcome variables (pulmonary TB, MDR-TB, and NTM infection) was derived through regression analysis and adjusted for age, gender, BMI, smoking status, and family income. We observed that a 1 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5 was associated with an increase of MDR-TB infections of 0.004 times (95%CI: 0.001–0.007). A 1 μg/m3 increase in 1-day and 7-day PM2.5 deposition in left upper lobe and left lower lobe was associated with an increase in chest X-ray abnormalities of 9.19 % and 1.18 % (95%CI: 0.87–17.51 and 95%CI: 0.08–2.28), and 4.52 % and 5.20 % (95%CI: 0.66–8.38 and 95%CI: 0.51–9.89) in left lung of TB patients, respectively. A 1 μg/m3 increase in 30-day PM2.5 deposition in alveolar region was associated with an increase in percent abnormality of 2.50 % (95%CI: 0.65–4.35) in left upper lobe and 3.33 % (95%CI: 0.65–6.01) in right middle lobe, while in total lung was 0.63 % (95%CI: 0.01–1.27) in right upper lobe and 0.37 % (95%CI, 0.06–0.81) in right lung of MDR-TB patients. Inhaled PM2.5 deposition in lungs was associated with an exacerbation of the radiographic severity of pulmonary TB, particularly in pulmonary MDR-TB patients in upper and middle lobes. Particulate air pollution may potentially exacerbate the radiographic severity and treatment resistance in individuals with pulmonary TB.

Original languageEnglish
Article number171534
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - May 10 2024


  • Air pollution
  • Climate change
  • Lung deposition
  • Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
  • Radiographic severity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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