Oral Dexmedetomidine Achieves Superior Effects in Mitigating Emergence Agitation and Demonstrates Comparable Sedative Effects to Oral Midazolam for Pediatric Premedication: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Studies

Chun Kai Jen, Kuo Ching Lu, Kuan Wen Chen, Yun Ru Lu, I. Tao Huang, Yu Chen Huang, Chun Jen Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Oral midazolam is the most commonly used sedative premedication agent in pediatric patients. While effective, oral midazolam cannot reduce the incidence of emergence agitation. Oral dexmedetomidine may be effective in providing satisfactory sedation and reduce the incidence of emergence agitation, although the results of different randomized controlled trials are conflicting. Methods: This study enrolled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining premedication with oral dexmedetomidine versus oral midazolam in pediatric patients undergoing general anesthesia. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Science database were searched from their inception until June 2023. The outcomes were the incidence of satisfactory preoperative sedation, satisfactory sedation during separation from parents, satisfactory sedation during anesthesia induction using an anesthesia mask, and the incidence of emergence agitation. Results: A total of 9 RCTs comprising 885 patients were analyzed. Our data revealed comparable effects of dexmedetomidine and midazolam with respect to satisfactory preoperative sedation and a satisfactory incidence of sedation during parental separation and mask acceptance before anesthesia induction. Notably, our data revealed that the rate of emergence agitation was significantly lower in pediatric patients receiving dexmedetomidine (n = 162) than in those receiving midazolam (n = 159) (odds ratio = 0.16; 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.44; p < 0.001; I2 = 35%). Conclusions: Data from this meta-analysis revealed comparable effects for premedication with oral dexmedetomidine or oral midazolam with respect to satisfactory sedation; furthermore, premedication with oral dexmedetomidine more effectively mitigated emergence agitation in pediatric patients receiving general anesthesia compared with oral midazolam.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1174
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Keywords

  • dexmedetomidine
  • emergence agitation
  • midazolam
  • pediatric
  • premedication
  • sedation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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