Olfactory Stimulation Successfully Modulates the Neurochemical, Biochemical and Behavioral Phenotypes of the Visceral Pain

Wen Chieh Liao, Rou An Yao, Li You Chen, Ting Yi Renn, Igor V. Klimenkov, Nikolay P. Sudakov, Fu Der Mai, Yea Tzy Chen, Hung Ming Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Visceral pain (VP) is the organ-derived nociception in which increased inflammatory reaction and exaggerated activation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) may contribute to this deficiency. Considering the amygdala also serves as the integration center for olfaction, the present study aimed to determine whether olfactory stimulation (OS) would effectively depress over-activation and inflammatory reaction in CeA, and successfully relieve VP-induced abnormalities. Adult rats subjected to intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid inhaled lavender essential oil for 2 or 4 h. The potential benefits of OS were determined by measuring the pro-inflammatory cytokine level, intracellular potassium and the upstream small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel expression, together with detecting the stress transmitters that participated in the modulation of CeA activity. Results indicated that in VP rats, strong potassium intensity, reduced SK channel protein level, and increased corticotropin-releasing factor, c-fos, and substance P immuno-reactivities were detected in CeA. Enhanced CeA activation corresponded well with increased inflammatory reaction and decreased locomotion, respectively. However, in rats subjected to VP and received OS, all above parameters were significantly returned to normal levels with higher change detected in treating OS of 4h. As OS successfully depresses inflammation and CeA over-activation, application of OS may serve as an alternative and effective strategy to efficiently relieve VP-induced deficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7659
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • central nucleus of amygdala
  • inflammation
  • neurochemical phenotypes
  • olfactory stimulation
  • time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)
  • visceral pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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