Nutrient composition of Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. bran: Fractionation and bioactivity of its soluble active polysaccharides

Yaw Bee Ker, Hui Ling Wu, Kuan Chou Chen, Robert Y. Peng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. Amaranthaceae—also known as Djulis or red quinoa (RQ)—is a cereal plant indigenous to Taiwan, known for its high nutrient value. However, its bran is considered a waste product and the nutrient value has never been analyzed. Methods. In this study, we examined the proximate composition of RQ bran, specifically its soluble polysaccharide fractions. Results. RQ bran exhibited high contents of protein (16.56%), ash (7.10%), carbohydrate (60.45%), total polyphenolics (1.85%), betaxanthin (9.91 mg/100 g of RQ bran), and indicaxanthin (7.27 mg/100 g of RQ bran). Specifically, it was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 39.24%)—with an n-6/n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio of 18.137 and 0.743, respectively. Four soluble polysaccharide fractions were also obtained: CF-1, CF-2, CF-3, and CF-4, with yields of 3.90%, 6.74%, 22.28%, and 0.06%, respectively, and molecular weights of 32.54, 24.93, 72.39, and 55.45 kDa, respectively. CF-1, CF-2, CF-3, and CF-4 had respectively 15.67%, 42.41%, 5.44%, and 14.52% peptide moiety content and 38.92%, 50.70%, 93.76%, and 19.80% carbohydrate moiety. In CF-2, the glucose content was 95.86 mol% and that of leucine was 16.23%, implicating the presence of a typical leucinoglucan. All four polysaccharide fractions lacked glutamic acid and hydroxyproline. The IC50 of CF-1, CF-2, and CF-3 was respectively 12.05, 3.98, and 14.5 mg/mL for DPPH free radical–scavenging ability; 5.77, 4.10, and 7.03 mg/mL for hydrogen peroxide–scavenging capability; 0.26, 0.05, and 0.19 mg/mL for O2- free radical–scavenging capability; and 100.41, 28.12, and 29.73 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation. Conclusion. Our results indicated that RQ bran has a large amount of nutrient compounds, and a cost-efficient process for their extraction is needed. Their biomedical application as nutraceuticals also warrants further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13459
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • Antioxidant activity
  • Gel filtration
  • Polysaccharides
  • Pseudo-cereals
  • Red Quinoa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Nutrient composition of Chenopodium formosanum Koidz. bran: Fractionation and bioactivity of its soluble active polysaccharides'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this