Nε-(Carboxymethyl) lysine-induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy cause decreased insulin secretion from β-cells

Mei-Chen Lo, Ming Hong Chen, Wen Sen Lee, Chin I. Lu, Chuang Rung Chang, Shu Huei Kao, Horng Mo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine-conjugated bovine serum albumin (CML-BSA) is a major component of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We hypothesised that AGEs reduce insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by damaging mitochondrial functions and inducing mitophagy. Mitochondrial morphology and the occurrence of autophagy were examined in pancreatic islets of diabetic db/db mice and in the cultured CML-BSA-treated insulinoma cell line RIN-m5F. In addition, the effects of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on mitochondria in AGEdamaged tissues were evaluated. The diabetic db/db mouse exhibited an increase in the number of autophagosomes in damaged mitochondria and receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Treatment of db/db mice with ALA for 12 wk increased the number of mitochondria with wellorganized cristae and fewer autophagosomes. Treatment of RIN-m5F cells with CML-BSA increased the level of RAGE protein and autophagosome formation, caused mitochondrial dysfunction, and decreased insulin secretion. CML-BSA also reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production, increased ROS and lipid peroxide production, and caused mitochondrial DNA deletions. Elevated fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) level and mitochondrial fragmentation demonstrated the unbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission in CML-BSA-treated cells. Additionally, increased levels of Parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 protein suggest that fragmented mitochondria were associated with increased mitophagic activity, and ALA attenuated the CML-BSAinduced mitophage formation. Our study demonstrated that CMLBSA induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy in pancreatic β-cells. The findings from this study suggest that increased concentration of AGEs may damage β-cells and reduce insulin secretion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)829-839
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Advanced glycated end products
  • Diabetes
  • Mitochondrial dynamics
  • Mitophagy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Physiology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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