Purpose: Several studies have explored the impact of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the extent to which NSAIDs may increase or decrease the risk of PD remains unresolved. We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NSAID use and PD risk in the elderly population. Methods: The electronic databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science were used to search the relevant articles published between January 1990 and December 2017. Large (n ≥ 1000) observational design studies with a follow-up at least 1 year were considered. Two authors independently extracted information from the included studies. Random effect model was used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (Cl). Results: A total of 17 studies with 2,498,258 participants and nearly 14,713 PD patients were included in the final analysis. The overall pooled RR of PD was 0.95 (95%CI 0.860–1.048) with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 63.093, Q = 43.352, p < 0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the overall pooled RR of PD was 0.90 (95%CI 0.738–1.109), 0.96 (95%CI 0.882–1.055), and 0.99 (95%CI 0.841–0.982) from the studies of North America, Europe, and Asia. Additionally, long-term use, study design, individual NSAID use, and risk of PD were also evaluated. Conclusion: Despite the neuroprotective potential of NSAIDs demonstrated in some experimental studies, our findings suggest that there is no association between NSAIDs and the risk of Parkinson disease at the population level. Until further evidence is established, clinicians need to be vigilant ensuring that the use of NSAIDs remains restricted to their approved anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-108
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • Aspirin
  • Ibuprofen
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  • Observational study
  • Parkinson’s disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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