MyD88 exacerbates inflammation-induced bone loss by modulating dynamic equilibrium between Th17/Treg cells and subgingival microbiota dysbiosis

Po Yan Hsiao, Ren Yeong Huang, Lin Wei Huang, Ching Liang Chu, Thomas Van Dyke, Lian Ping Mau, Chia Dan Cheng, Cheng En Sung, Pei Wei Weng, Yu Chiao Wu, Yi Shing Shieh, Wan Chien Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: This study aimed to investigate the contribution of myeloid differentiation primary-response gene 88 (MyD88) on the differentiation of T helper type 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells and the emerging subgingival microbiota dysbiosis in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced experimental periodontitis. Methods: Alveolar bone loss, infiltrated inflammatory cells, immunostained cells for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were quantified by microcomputerized tomography and histological staining between age- and sex-matched homozygous littermates (wild-type [WT, Myd88+/+] and Myd88−/− on C57BL/6 background). The frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells in cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and spleen were determined by flow cytometry. Cytokine expression in gingival tissues, CLNs, and spleens were studied by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Analysis of the composition of the subgingival microbiome and functional annotation of prokaryotic taxa (FAPROTAX) analysis were performed. Results: P. gingivalis-infected Myd88−/− mice showed alleviated bone loss, TRAP+ osteoclasts, and RANKL/OPG ratio compared to WT mice. A significantly higher percentage of Foxp3+CD4+ T cells in infected Myd88−/− CLNs and a higher frequency of RORγt+CD4+ T cells in infected WT mice was noted. Increased IL-10 and IL-17a expressions in gingival tissue at D14–D28 then declined in WT mice, whereas an opposite pattern was observed in Myd88−/− mice. The Myd88−/− mice exhibited characteristic increases in gram-positive species and species having probiotic properties, while gram-negative, anaerobic species were noted in WT mice. FAPROTAX analysis revealed increased aerobic chemoheterotrophy in Myd88−/− mice, whereas anaerobic chemoheterotrophy was noted in WT mice after P. gingivalis infection. Conclusions: MyD88 plays an important role in inflammation-induced bone loss by modulating the dynamic equilibrium between Th17/Treg cells and dysbiosis in P. gingivalis-induced experimental periodontitis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Periodontology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


  • dysbiosis
  • myeloid differentiation factor 88
  • periodontitis
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • regulatory T lymphocytes
  • T helper 17 cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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