Monitoring and evaluating the dietary risk of trace elements content in bottled and hand-shaken tea in Taiwan

Wei Shan Chin, Ling Chu Chien, Ho Ching Kao, Yung Ning Chuang, Kai Wei Liao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Tea is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide and is obtained from the leaves Camellia sinensis. The traditional way of tea consumption through brewing is gradually being replaced by the consumption of bottled and hand-shaken tea. Despite the different ways of tea consumption, trace elements accumulation and contamination of tea leaves have caused concerns. However, limited studies have reported trace element concentrations in different types of tea in bottled or hand-shaken tea and their health risks. This study aimed to determine the level of trace elements (V, Cr, Co, As, Cd, Pb, Mn, and Zn) in green tea, black tea, and Oolong tea in two varieties of products (bottled and hand-shaken tea). The health risks associated with tea consumption in various age subgroups among Taiwan’s general population were also estimated. A Monte Carlo simulation was applied to estimate the distribution of daily trace elements intake through bottled and hand-shaken tea consumption. As to the non-carcinogenic risks, the Monte Carlo simulation showed that hand-shaken green tea had a higher percentage of hazard index (HI) >1 (1.08%~6.05%) among all age groups. As to carcinogenic risks, the Monte Carlo simulation showed that the risks of As exposure from bottled Oolong tea and hand-shaken black, green, and Oolong teas in the 90th percentile in >18 to ≤65 and >65-year-old groups were higher than 10-6. The current study findings provided some information about trace elements of both bottled and hand-shaken tea and human health risks in the general population of Taiwan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55716-55729
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number19
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Bottled tea
  • Carcinogenic risk
  • Hand-shaken tea
  • Non-carcinogenic risk
  • Trace elements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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