Mobility, educational, and social performance of children with learning problems in Taiwan: A 3-year follow-up study

Lien Chieh Lin, Tsan Hon Liou, Wen Chou Chi, Chia Feng Yen, Hua Fang Liao, Chin Wen Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Aim: This study evaluated the performance of children with learning problems in Taiwan by using the Taiwan Data Bank of Persons with Disability. Method: We included 3854 children (2343 males, 1511 females; mean [SD] age 9y 11mo [2y 4mo]) with specific learning disorder (SLD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, epilepsy, or intellectual disabilities for analysis. We used the Functioning Scale of the Disability Evaluation System-Child version to investigate performance at follow-up for at least 3 years. Results: These participants demonstrated improvement across all the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Health, and Disability including for mobility, learning, social participation, and daily living. The children with SLD (p=0.3) and epilepsy (p=0.442) did not demonstrate significant improvement in learning, whereas those with ADHD (p<0.001), autism (p<0.001), and intellectual disabilities (p<0.001) did. The children with epilepsy displayed the most impairment and least improvement. Interpretation: This cross-diagnostic study of learning problems indicated the children with autism or ADHD received more structural education. However, education strategies for those with SLD or epilepsy required improvement. Finally, SLD is possibly underdiagnosed in children, and children with epilepsy are affected in multiple aspects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1156-1167
Number of pages12
JournalDevelopmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Issue number9
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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