Methanol Extract of Clavularia inflata Exerts Apoptosis and DNA Damage to Oral Cancer Cells

Yin Yin Hsu, Ya Ting Chuang, Ching Yu Yen, Ming Ya Cheng, Ching Yeu Chen, Yuan Bin Cheng, Hsueh Wei Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Antiproliferation effects of Clavularia-derived natural products against cancer cells have been reported on, but most studies have focused on identifying bioactive compounds, lacking a detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism. Crude extracts generally exhibit multiple targeting potentials for anticancer effects, but they have rarely been assessed for methanol extracts of Clavularia inflata (MECI). This investigation aims to evaluate the antiproliferation of MECI and to examine several potential mechanisms between oral cancer and normal cells. A 24 h MTS assay demonstrated that MECI decreased cell viability in several oral cancer cell lines more than in normal cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an oxidative stress inhibitor, recovered these antiproliferation effects. Higher oxidative stress was stimulated by MECI in oral cancer cells than in normal cells, as proven by examining reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide. This preferential induction of oxidative stress was partly explained by downregulating more cellular antioxidants, such as glutathione, in oral cancer cells than in normal cells. Consequently, the MECI-generated high oxidative stress in oral cancer cells was preferred to trigger more subG1 population, apoptosis expression (annexin V and caspase activation), and DNA damage, reverted by NAC. In conclusion, MECI is a potent marine natural product showing preferential antiproliferation against oral cancer cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1777
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • antiproliferation
  • marine natural product
  • oral cancer
  • oxidative stress
  • soft corals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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