Clinical empathy refers to the ability of healthcare providers (HP) to recognize and understand what patients feel. While neuroimaging investigations have identified a neural network of empathy, activation consistency of brain regions and their specific functions in clinical empathy remains unclear. Herein, we conducted meta-analyses of dispositional assessments using random-effects models and functional neuroimaging using Seed-based d Mapping with Permutation of Subject Images to ascertain the shared neural processes consistently identified as relevant to clinical empathy. The dispositional meta-analysis (n = 15) revealed that HP exhibited higher scores on empathic concern and perspective taking. The HP neuroimaging meta-analysis (n = 11) identified consistent activation of the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) while HP vs. controls comparison (n = 9) did not yield robust alterations. The vlPFC mediated positive and negative functional connectivity of the insula. We revisited the framework of emotion regulation in clinical empathy. The empathetic agent flexibly shifts between affective regulatory strategies to meet contextual demands, with vlPFC figuring as the key region where this neural mechanism takes place.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104874
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Clinical empathy
  • Disposition
  • Meta-analysis
  • Neuroimaging
  • Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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