Meta-analysis and moderator analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition and malnutrition risk among older adults with dementia

Hidayat Arifin, Ruey Chen, Kondwani Joseph Banda, Christina Yeni Kustanti, Ching Yi Chang, Hui Chen Lin, Doresses Liu, Tso Ying Lee, Kuei Ru Chou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Aging and dementia are common and closely related health problems in older adults, affecting their ability to maintain a healthy diet and ultimately resulting in malnutrition. Objective: In this study, we estimated the global prevalence of malnutrition and malnutrition risk in older adults with dementia. Design: Meta-analysis. Data sources: Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science were comprehensively searched for articles published from database inception to October 2022. Methods: Pooled prevalence analysis was conducted using a generalized linear mixed model and a random-effects model. I2 and Cochran's Q statistics were used for identifying heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using Peters' regression test and a funnel plot. Moderator analyses were conducted to investigate variations in the prevalence estimates of the included studies. All statistical analyses were conducted using R software. Results: A total of 16 studies involving a total of 6513 older adults with dementia were included in the analysis. The results indicated that 32.52 % (95 % confidence interval: 19.55–45.49) of all included older adults with dementia had malnutrition, whereas 46.80 % (95 % confidence interval: 38.90–54.70) had a risk of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was found to be high among older patients living in institutionalized settings (46.59 %) and those with Alzheimer's disease (12.26 %). The factors moderating the prevalence of malnutrition included adequate vitamin B12 consumption, risk behaviors, medical comorbidities, and certain neuropsychiatric symptoms. The prevalence of malnutrition risk was high among women (29.84 %) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (26.29 %). The factors moderating the prevalence of malnutrition risk included total cholesterol level, vitamin B12 consumption, risk behaviors, medical comorbidities, and certain neuropsychiatric symptoms. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of older adults with dementia are malnourished and nearly half of older adults are at a risk of malnutrition. Encouraging collaboration among health-care professionals and ensuring early assessment and effective management of malnutrition are crucial for maintaining a favorable nutritional status in older adults with dementia. Registration: This study was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42022369329). Tweetable abstract: Globally, approximately 32.52 % of older adults with dementia are malnourished and approximately 46.80 % are at a risk of malnutrition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104648
JournalInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume150
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Keywords

  • Dementia
  • Malnutrition
  • Malnutrition risk
  • Meta-analysis
  • Older adult

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing

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