Masticatory hypofunction effects induced by BTXA injection of hippocampal neurons in developing rats

Chi Yang Tsai, Hsin Ping Lee, Hung Ming Chang, Fang Chun Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background and objective: In clinical practice, malocclusion is often encountered during the period of growth and development of individuals. In addition to nutritional imbalance, some studies have found that mastication affects learning and memory ability. Tooth loss and masticatory hypofunction have been suggested as risk factors of Alzheimer disease. However, relatively little research has been done in developing animals. The present study evaluated the relationship between masticatory hypofunction and neuropathological changes of the hippocampus in developing rats. Design: Four-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into saline-injected and botulinum toxin type A (BTXA)-injected groups. After an experiment period of 4 weeks, the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of neuropathological changes in the hippocampus through Nissl staining and phosphorylated cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) immunohistochemistry. Results: Nissl staining revealed a significant reduction in the density of neurons in the BTXA-injected rats. The BTXA-injected rats exhibited a decreased level of CREB phosphorylation. The degree of p-CREB immunoreactivity differed significantly between the two groups. Conclusion: The BTXA-injected rats exhibited a reduction in neuron density and phosphorylated CREB, indicating that mastication might influence the learning and memory ability during the growth period. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that malocclusion be corrected as soon as possible during growth and development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-129
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Oral Biology
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2018


  • Botulinum toxin
  • CREB
  • Hippocampus
  • Mastication
  • Neurodevelopment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • General Dentistry
  • Cell Biology


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