Magnesium Modified β-Tricalcium Phosphate Induces Cell Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro and Bone Regeneration In Vivo

Eisner Salamanca, Yu Hwa Pan, Ying Sui Sun, Hao Wen Hsueh, Odontuya Dorj, Wan Ling Yao, Jerry Chin Yi Lin, Nai Chia Teng, Ikki Watanabe, Shinichi Abe, Yi Fan Wu, Wei Jen Chang

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9 Citations (Scopus)


In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies have shown how the physicochemical and biological properties of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) work in bone regeneration. This study aimed to improve the properties of β-TCP by achieving optimum surface and bulk β-TCP chemical/physical properties through the hydrothermal addition of magnesium (Mg) and to later establish the biocompatibility of β-TCP/Mg for bone grafting and tissue engineering treatments. Multiple in vitro and in vivo analyses were used to complete β-TCP/Mg physicochemical and biological characterization. The addition of MgO brought about a modest rise in the number of β-TCP surface particles, indicating improvements in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity on day 21 (p < 0.05) and in the WST-1assay on all days (p < 0.05), with a corresponding increase in the upregulation of ALP and bone sialoprotein. SEM analyses stated that the surfaces of the β-TCP particles were not altered after the addition of Mg. Micro-CT and histomorphometric analysis from rabbit calvaria critical defects resulted in β-TCP/Mg managing to reform more new bone than the control defects and β-TCP control at 2, 6, and 8 weeks (* p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001, and **** p ≤ 0.0001). The hydrothermal addition of MgO to the β-TCP surfaces ameliorated its biocompatibility without altering its surface roughness resulting from the elemental composition while enhancing cell viability and proliferation, inducing more bone regeneration by osteoconduction in vivo and osteoblastic differentiation in vitro.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1717
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Bone regeneration
  • Dental research
  • Hydrothermal synthesis
  • Magnesium ions
  • Material characterization
  • Osteogenic differentiation
  • β-tricalcium phosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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