It is still unknown whether long-term inhalation of indoor air pollutants from ambient essential oil is associated with increased cardiopulmonary events. We recruited 200 healthy home-makers to conduct a prospective observation study in Northern Taiwan. We measured heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and indoor air pollutants four times per year for each participant between 2008 and 2018. Moreover, a ques-tionnaire related to essential oil usage, home characteristics, and health status was filled out with each participant. The association between essential oil usage and cardiopulmonary health was determined using mixed-effects models. The mixed-effects models showed a significant association between essential oil usage and adverse cardiopulmonary effects including increased HR and BP and decreased % predicted PEFR among participants with heavy use of essential oils. No significant association between essential oils usage and adverse cardiopulmonary effects was observed among participants without essential oils usage or participants with mild use of essential oils (less than one hour per day). We concluded that exposure to indoor air pollution related to essential oils was associated with adverse cardiopulmonary effects among participants with essential oil usage more than one hour per day.

Original languageEnglish
Article number631
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • air pollution
  • blood pressure
  • essential oils
  • heart rate
  • peak expiratory flow rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)


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