Long-Term and Interactive Effects of Pay-For-Performance Interventions among Diabetic Nephropathy Patients at the Early Chronic Kidney Disease Stage

Pei Ju Liao, Tzu Yu Lin, Tzu Ching Wang, Ming Kuo Ting, I. Wen Wu, Hsin Tsung Huang, Fu Chung Wang, Huan Cheng Chang, Kuang Hung Hsu

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem worldwide because of the aging population and lifestyle changes. One of the important etiologies of CKD is diabetes mellitus (DM). The long-term effects of pay-for-performance (P4P) on disease progression have not been thoroughly examined. This study is a retrospective population-based patient cohort design to examine the continuous effects of diabetes and CKD P4P interventions. This study used the health insurance claims database to conduct a longitudinal analysis. A total of 32,084 early CKD patients with diabetes were extracted from the outpatient claims database from January 2011 to December 2012, and the follow-up period was extended to August 2014. A 4-group matching design, including both diabetes and early CKD P4P interventions, with only diabetes P4P intervention, with only early CKD P4P intervention, and without any P4P interventions, was performed according to their descending intensity. The primary outcome of this study was all-cause mortality and the causes of death. The statistical methods included a Chi-squared test, ANOVA, and multi-variable Cox regression models. A dose-response relationship between the intervention groups and all-cause mortality was observed as follows: comparing to both diabetes and early CKD P4P interventions (reference), hazard ratio (HR) was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.50) for patients with only a diabetes P4P intervention; HR was 2.00 (95% CI, 1.66-2.42) for patients with only an early CKD P4P intervention; and HR was 2.42 (95% CI, 2.02-2.91) for patients without any P4P interventions. The leading cause of death of the total diabetic nephropathy patient cohort was infectious diseases (34.32%) followed by cardiovascular diseases (17.12%), acute renal failure (1.50%), and malignant neoplasm of liver (1.40%). Because the earlier interventions have lasting long-term effects on the patient's prognosis regardless of disease course, an integrated early intervention plan is suggested in future care plan designs. The mechanisms regarding the effects of P4P intervention, such as health education on diet control, continuity of care, and practice guidelines and adherence, are the primary components of disease management programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3282
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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