International consensus on patient-centred outcomes in eating disorders

Amelia Austin, Umanga De Silva, Christiana Ilesanmi, Theerawich Likitabhorn, Isabel Miller, Maria da Luz Sousa Fialho, S. Bryn Austin, Belinda Caldwell, Chu Shan Elaine Chew, Sook Ning Chua, Suzanne Dooley-Hash, James Downs, Carine El Khazen Hadati, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Jillian Lampert, Yael Latzer, Paulo P.P. Machado, Sarah Maguire, Madeeha Malik, Carolina Meira MoserElissa Myers, Iris Ruth Pastor, Janice Russell, Lauren Smolar, Howard Steiger, Elizabeth Tan, Eva Trujillo-Chi Vacuán, Mei Chih Meg Tseng, Eric F. van Furth, Jennifer E. Wildes, Christine Peat, Tracy K. Richmond

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The effectiveness of mental health care can be improved through coordinated and wide-scale outcome measurement. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement has produced collaborative sets of outcome measures for various mental health conditions, but no universal guideline exists for eating disorders. This Position Paper presents a set of outcomes and measures for eating disorders as determined by 24 international experts from professional and lived experience backgrounds. An adapted Delphi technique was used, and results were assessed through an open review survey. Final recommendations suggest outcomes should be tracked across four domains: eating disorder behaviours and cognitions, physical health, co-occurring mental health conditions, and quality of life and social functioning. Outcomes are collected using three to five patient-reported measures. For children aged between 6 years and 12 years, the measures include the Children's Eating Attitude Test (or, for those with avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, the Eating Disorder in Youth Questionnaire), the KIDSCREEN-10, and the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Screener-25. For adolescents aged between 13 years and 17 years, the measures include the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q; or, for avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, the Nine-Item Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Screener [NIAS]), the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the two-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2), the seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and the KIDSCREEN-10. For adults older than 18 years, measures include the EDE-Q (or, for avoidant restrictive food intake disorder, the NIAS), the PHQ-2, the PHQ-9, the GAD-2, the GAD-7, the Clinical Impairment Assessment, and the 12-item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. These questionnaires should be supplemented by information on patient characteristics and circumstances (ie, demographic, historical, and clinical factors). International adoption of these guidelines will allow comparison of research and clinical interventions to determine which settings and interventions work best, and for whom.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)966-973
Number of pages8
JournalThe Lancet Psychiatry
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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