Injury severity measures for predicting return-to-work after a traumatic brain injury

Ding Kuo Chien, Hei Fen Hwang, Mau Roung Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


This study compared the ability of five injury severity measures, namely the Abbreviated Injury Scale to the Head (AIS-H), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE), and Injury Severity Score (ISS), to predict return-to-work after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Furthermore, factors potentially associated with return-to-work were investigated. In total, 207 individuals aged ≤65 years newly diagnosed with a TBI and employed at the time of injury were recruited and followed-up for 1 year by telephone every 3 months. A bivariate proportional hazards model analysis revealed that all five injury severity measures were significantly associated with return-to-work after a TBI. The AIS-H and non-head ISS explained 23.8% of the variation in the duration of returning to work from discharge after hospitalization for a TBI; similarly, the GCS, GOS, GOSE, and ISS respectively accounted for 4.7%, 21.4%, 12.9%, and 48.4% of the variation. A multivariable analysis revealed that individuals with higher injury severity as measured by the ISS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92–0.97), a lack of autonomy in transportation (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.23–5.32), cognitive impairment (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28–0.79), and depression (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95–0.99) were significantly less likely to be employed after a TBI. In conclusion, of the five injury severity measures, the ISS may be the most capable measure of predicting return-to-work after a TBI. In addition to injury severity, autonomy in transportation, cognitive function, and the depressive status may also influence the employment status during the first year after a TBI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-107
Number of pages7
JournalAccident Analysis and Prevention
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017


  • AIS
  • Employment
  • Injury severity
  • ISS
  • Return-to-work
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Law


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