Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients possess a higher risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) possibly because of related underlying inflammation and immune dysregulation. In the current population-based cohort study, we evaluate the effects of influenza vaccination on RCC among CKD patients. Methods. We analysed the vaccinated and unvaccinated CKD patients (≥55 years of age) identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. Propensity score matching was used to reduce the selection bias. Subgroup analyses based on comorbid conditions, dialysis status and vaccinated dosages were also conducted. Results. The incidence of RCC decreased significantly in the vaccinated compared with unvaccinated group {unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31–0.81], P < .01; adjusted HR 0.46 [95% CI 0.28–0.75], P < .01}. Such protective effects of influenza vaccination were noted significantly among those ≥75 years of age [unadjusted HR 0.29 (95% CI 0.12–0.74), P < .01; adjusted HR 0.22 (95% CI 0.08–0.58), P < .01]. A reverse association was noted between the total number of vaccinations and RCC events in both unadjusted and adjusted models. The Kaplan–Meier estimates of the RCC events showed significantly higher free survival rates in the vaccinated as compared with the unvaccinated patients (logrank P = .005). Conclusion. This population-based cohort study found a significant inverse relationship between influenza vaccination and the risk of RCC in CKD patients and the protective effects were more prominent in patients >75 years of age. A possible relation exists between the total number of vaccinations and RCC events. Future randomized clinical and basic studies will be needed to prove these findings and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1936-1946
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Kidney Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2023


  • chronic inflammation
  • chronic kidney disease
  • immune dysfunction
  • influenza vaccination
  • renal cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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