Indigenizing and co-producing the ACGME anesthesiology milestone in Taiwan: a Delphi study and subgroup analysis

Enoch Yi No Kang, Kuan Yu Chi, Faith Liao, Chih Chung Liu, Chih Peng Lin, Ta Liang Chen, Pedro Tanaka, Chien Yu Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: To implement the ACGME Anesthesiology Milestone Project in a non-North American context, a process of indigenization is essential. In this study, we aim to explore the differences in perspective toward the anesthesiology competencies among residents and junior and senior visiting staff members and co-produce a preliminary framework for the following nation-wide survey in Taiwan. Methods: The expert committee translation and Delphi technique were adopted to co-construct an indigenized draft of milestones. Descriptive analysis, chi-square testing, Pearson correlation testing, and repeated-measures analysis of variance in the general linear model were employed to calculate the F values and mean differences (MDs). Results: The translation committee included three experts and the consensus panel recruited 37 participants from four hospitals in Taiwan: 9 residents, 13 junior visiting staff members (JVSs), and 15 senior visiting staff members (SVSs). The consensus on the content of the 285 milestones was achieved after 271 minor and 6 major modifications in 3 rounds of the Delphi survey. Moreover, JVSs were more concerned regarding patient care than were both residents (MD = − 0.095, P < 0.001) and SVSs (MD = 0.075, P < 0.001). Residents were more concerned regarding practice-based learning improvement than were JVSs (MD = 0.081; P < 0.01); they also acknowledged professionalism more than JVSs (MD = 0.072; P < 0.05) and SVSs (MD = 0.12; P < 0.01). Finally, SVSs graded interpersonal and communication skills lower than both residents (MD = 0.068; P < 0.05) and JVSs (MD = 0.065; P < 0.05) did. Conclusions: Most ACGME anesthesiology milestones are applicable and feasible in Taiwan. Incorporating residents’ perspectives may bring insight and facilitate shared understanding to a new educational implementation. This study helped Taiwan generate a well-informed and indigenized draft of a competency-based framework for the following nation-wide Delphi survey.

Original languageEnglish
Article number154
JournalBMC Medical Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024


  • Anesthesiologist
  • Competency-based medical education
  • Delphi
  • Milestone
  • Resident training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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