End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients commonly have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases than general population. Chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, little is known about the AF risk among ESRD patients with various modalities of renal replacement therapy. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to determine the incident AF among peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients in Taiwan. Our ESRD cohort include Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 15,947 patients, who started renal replacement therapy between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2003. From the same data source, 47,841 controls without ESRD (3 subjects for each patient) were identified randomly and frequency matched by gender, age (±1 year), and the year of the study patient's index date for ESRD between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2003. During the follow-up period (mean duration: 8-10 years), 3428 individuals developed the new-onset AF. The incidence rate ratios for AF were 2.07 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.93-2.23) and 1.78 (95% CI=1.30-2.44) in HD and PD groups, respectively. After we adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities, the hazard ratios for the AF risk were 1.46 (95% CI=1.32-1.61) and 1.32 (95% CI=1.00-1.83) in HD and PD groups, respectively. ESRD patients with a history of certain comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have significantly increased risks of AF. This nationwide, population-based study suggests that incidence of AF is increased among dialysis ESRD patients. Furthermore, we have to pay more attention in clinical practice and long-term care for those ESRD patients with a history of certain comorbidities.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3933
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number25
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2016


  • atrial fibrillation
  • end-stage renal disease
  • hemodialysis
  • peritoneal dialysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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