In vivo production and enzyme-inducing activity of indolo[3,2-6]carbazole

Chong Suk Kwon, Karl R. Grose, Jacques Riby, Yue Hwa Chen, Leonard F. Bjeldanes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Indolo[3,2-6]carbazole (ICZ) is a potent Ah receptor agonist produced during the oligomerization of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a breakdown product of the glucobrassicin present in food plants of the Brassica genus. Levels of ICZ present in the feces, urine, gastrointestinal tracts, and livers of rats fed on I3C- or cabbage-supplemented basal diet were 16-fold to over 100-fold higher than levels for animals on the basal diet alone. Levels of ICZ significantly lower than the basal levels for conventional rats were present in feces of germfree rats, indicating that gut bacteria are important for the production of ICZ from essential dietary constituents. Low levels of ICZ in extracts of human feces were also detected. The results suggest further that ICZ by itself may not be responsible for the enzyme-inducing activity of orally administered I3C or its precursors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2536-2540
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Brassica
  • Cytochrome P450
  • Endogenous inducer
  • Indole-3-carbinol
  • Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)


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