Implicit exchanges in family caregiving for frail elders in Taiwan

Hui Chuan Hsu, Yea Ing Lotus Shyu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, the authors use in-depth interviews with inductive analysis to develop a conceptual framework for exploring social exchanges and their implicit calculations for caregivers in Taiwan. They interviewed 22 caregivers, based on theory-based sampling and maximum variation. They found some components of implicit exchanges of the caregivers, and drew a framework to describe it. At the beginning of care, motivations were mostly from obligation accompanied by reciprocity or repaying motives. In the process of caregiving, some unique, implicit cultural implicit exchanges were found, such as karma, a demonstrative behavior to investment, equitable share of responsibility, and the pressure or rewards from public opinion. These implicit exchanges might be intermediary factors in helping caregivers cope with their burden or even in influencing their continuation of care. The findings are implicated to help family caregivers continue their care and not damage their quality of care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1078-1093
Number of pages16
JournalQualitative Health Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Caregivers
  • Chinese culture
  • Filial piety
  • Karma (Yin-Guo)
  • Public opinion
  • Reciprocity
  • Social exchange
  • Taiwan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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