17 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of urban landscape from window views on quality of care for women who underwent Cesarean Section (C-section) in Taiwan.

DESIGN: The participants were randomly assigned into 46 different hospital rooms to see the effects of various window views and daylight exposure on women's recovery from post C-section care.

SETTING: We carried out this study in the obstetrics departments of three tertiary hospitals located in two major cities of Taiwan: Taipei City and New Taipei City.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 296 women who underwent C-sections and used patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) for pain control after their surgery during the 10-month data collection period were recruited for this study.

INTERVENTION: The 46 different patient rooms provided diverse window views and different daylight exposure for the participants.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Recovery for the women who underwent C-sections in this study was defined as PCA usage and perceived pain measured by Brief Pain Inventory (BFI).

RESULTS: Higher satisfaction of window view significantly decreased analgesic usage (P = 0.057), reduced the scores of overall perceived pain (P = 0.046), pain severity (P = 0.004), and 'pain's interference with relations with others, enjoyment of life, and mood (REM).' (P = 0.095).

CONCLUSIONS: To maximize benefit and well-being of patients recovering from surgery, health care architects should design patient rooms to create maximum satisfaction with visual impacts and optimize window views. By doing so, it may decrease the use of pain medication and substantially reduce healthcare costs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)798-803
Number of pages6
JournalInternational journal for quality in health care : journal of the International Society for Quality in Health Care
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Dec 31 2019


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