Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) deposition disease (CPPD) is a form of CPP crystal-induced arthritis. A high concentration of extracellular pyrophosphate (ePPi) in synovial fluid is positively correlated with the formation of CPP crystals, and ePPi can be upregulated by ankylosis human (ANKH) and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase 1 (ENPP1) and downregulated by tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). However, there is currently no drug that eliminates CPP crystals. We explored the effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACis) trichostatin A (TSA) and vorinostat (SAHA) on CPP formation. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-treated human primary cultured articular chondrocytes (HC-a cells) were used to increase ePPi and CPP formation, which were determined by pyrophosphate assay and CPP crystal staining assay, respectively. Artificial substrates thymidine 5-monophosphate p-nitrophenyl ester (p-NpTMP) and p-nitrophenyl phos-phate (p-NPP) were used to estimate ENPP1 and TNAP activities, respectively. The HDACis TSA and SAHA significantly reduced mRNA and protein expressions of ANKH and ENPP1 but increased TNAP expression in a dose-dependent manner in HC-a cells. Further results demonstrated that TSA and SAHA decreased ENPP1 activity, increased TNAP activity, and limited levels of ePPi and CPP. As expected, both TSA and SAHA significantly increased the acetylation of histones 3 and 4 but failed to block Smad-2 phosphorylation induced by TGF-β1. These results suggest that HDACis prevented the formation of CPP by regulating ANKH, ENPP1, and TNAP expressions and can possibly be developed as a potential drug to treat or prevent CPPD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2604
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2022


  • ANKH
  • Calcium pyrophosphate
  • ENPP1
  • HDAC
  • TNAP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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